Types of Backgammon

French Backgammon

At the beginning all checkers are off-board (as if they were on the bar). An opening roll is played as usual, but the winner has an option to re-roll the dice for his first move. On doubles, the numbers are played twice as in standard backgammon, and besides, the player gets an extra roll.


Played with the standard initial layout, but the player who wins the opening roll, re-rolls to make his first move. Doubles are not played twice. If a player has a checker on the bar and his opponent’s home board is completely closed, both players roll one dice (as on the opening roll), and the winner of the roll decides what point of the close home board he wants to open. This is done by moving all, but one checker from the selected point onto the bar as if they were hit. Checkers can be born off from the lower point even if there still are checkers on a higher one. There neither are gammons, nor backgammons. The game is played without doubling cube.


The setup is similar to standard backgammon, but one checker is removed from the player’s 8 point and the opponent’s 12 point, and these two checkers are placed at the opponent’s 2 point, making 4 back checkers. The rest of the standard backgammon rules apply.


The game starts with all 15 checkers at the rightmost point of the far side of the board. Both players move their checkers in the same counterclockwise direction. The checkers must be moved to the quarter of the board opposite to the starting point and then born off. There is no hitting. Checkers can be placed only at open points. One checker on a point can not be hit and therefore blocks the point. Only one checker can be removed from the initial pile per roll, except the first roll when two checkers can be removed.

Shesh Besh

The winner of the first roll re-rolls to make his first move. Backgammon scored only if the opponent has a checker on the bar. The game is played without doubling cube.


An ancestor of modern backgammon. All checkers start off the board and move in the same counterclockwise direction starting from the same point. Three dice are used and there are no doubles. Checkers can not be moved to the second half of the board until all checkers has entered the board.

International Study Programs

Some colleges and universities offer international study programs. Programs may include internships, summer programs, service learning and volunteer programs and intensive language programs as well as programs that focus on your major or area of interest. Schools like Syracuse University, the State University of New York, Boston University offer these programs, to name a few. There are many schools across the U.S. that offer international study, so check the course catalog and college mailers to see what each school offers.

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For example, Boston University offers 65 programs in 30 countries and is one of them more expensive international study programs available. These programs may be in communication, archaeology, art, language, religion or any one of a number of other majors or subjects. You can even attend business school in Dublin, Ireland!

These programs are typically available to students in their junior or senior year, but each college policy varies, so check with your school. If your school does not offer international study, you may still be able to find a program for summer study and arrange school credit.

There are some sites you may find helpful in your search if your school is unable to help you:




Before you make the decision to study abroad, consider whether you are ready for this adventure. These programs can broaden your knowledge and skill and expand your mind and experience beyond your domestic and local community exposure. However, if you are not ready to live and study in another country for a month or more, you may be miserable being so far away from home. Talk to your advisors, your parents and your friends and decide whether these programs are for you. You might consider putting off international study for another year or until you are in graduate school if you feel you need more time to prepare yourself.

If you ARE ready, do your homework. Find out about the culture, the health care system, the people, the history and the language. Do some exploring and sightseeing in your spare time but be sure you understand where you can safely go. School programs are well equipped to prepare you with information about the country and program you are attending, but it never hurts to do your own homework. The more you know about the people and the environment, the less insecure you will feel and the more prepared you will be. Bring a camera and a journal and take home plenty of mementos of your journey. If you do choose to take advantage of one of these programs through your school or a third party summer study program, you will have the experience of your life and it is something you will never forget.

Premier Destinations in the UK for Road Trips

There are some people who experience a sense of peace whenever they get the chance to explore their surroundings while riding their cars. The advantage of this type of travel is you get to control the pace of your journey. The slow drive along lush countryside can also give you a sense of tranquility. If you and your friends are open to an unconventional type of trip, then perhaps you should purchase second hand cars Northumberland and explore sights and sounds around the country. This type of pastime has been done by countless others in the past. Enthusiasts more or less agree that these are some of the top places to visit while you are out on the road:

  1. London to Brighton

There are many who have noted the similarities between these two destinations. In fact, Brighton is renowned as the London by the Sea. Travel time takes a couple of hours, especially if you depart from the capital. The ideal route to take would be to go south of the Thames and take the A23 South which leads you directly to M23, near the coast of Brighton. As you drive along, you can appreciate the transition of the hustle and bustle of the city to the peacefulness and serenity of the countryside.

  1. Norfolk County

If you prefer a quiet atmosphere, then this road trip is definitely for you. You start your journey at the county’s capital Norwich and take the A47 to Kings Lynn and to Cromer afterwards. The drive along these two routes provides you with magnificent views of the Cley and Titchwell nature reserves. If you have time to spare, you can also drive along B1355 inland and explore Compton Hall.

  1. Scottish Highlands

Many have claimed this area as one of the most majestic in the world. Not only will you find lush fields and plains, you can also explore ancient and majestic castles and fortresses. If you are planning on a round trip in this region, take note that the entire area is approximately 400 miles, which means it might take you four to five days on the road. As you travel, you can make various stops at Edinburgh, Perth, and Inverness. You can witness spectacular views among all these areas.

Take note that unlike regular holidays, most of your time will be spent out on the road. For this reason, it would be best if you familiarize the different routes so that you will not get lost along the way.

The Costs of Working from Home

Working from home is a tremendous opportunity to make an income but also to save on everyday expenses. You can save money on gas, clothes, lunches out, and childcare. But before you go ahead and think you can get rich working from home, be prepared for a few out of pocket expenses.

Most work at home opportunities involve computer work, so be sure you have an updated and virus-free computer. A trip to the local computer specialist to clean off your hard drive might be in order or you may have to update your software. A good bookkeeping software program is a must now that you need to track your own earnings, taxes, and expenses.

Keeping your computer in good working order and virus free is extremely important if you want to successfully work from home, so the purchase of anti-virus software may be necessary too. Do some research and make an informed decision rather than just purchasing the cheapest software. If the cheap software does not protect your computer, you may be unable to work for many days, or even weeks, for which you will not be paid.

High speed or digital internet access is a must for people working at home. Trying to download files of any kind, written or audio, will be a nightmare with dial-up service. Check your local telephone or cable companies to determine who offers the most reliable service for the least monthly cost.

Typing or transcription work is a very popular work at home opportunity but some companies require the use of a foot pedal and/or a headset. A special software program may also be necessary, depending on the company and their practices. Although the company will offer a referral or links to these items on their websites, these purchases will be out of pocket costs for the new employee.

When you start your search for work at home jobs, you will undoubtedly discover various directories of companies that offer work from home opportunities. Even though this is another expense, these directories will cut down your research time tremendously! After all, someone already scoured the internet looking for these companies to add to their directory. The boring work has been done for you, which makes a directory such a useful tool.

Another way to work from home is to choose a multi-level marketing company (MLM) or a network marketing opportunity. With MLM you will do less computer work but your expenses will come with whatever consultant package your company requires you to buy. Catalogs and business cards are additional expenses. With network marketing, if you are selling a product or service, very often you must also be a customer with a monthly purchasing quota.

No matter what type of work at home opportunity you choose, be aware of possible upfront or monthly expenses before you enter into any agreement. Do the math and also figure out how long it will take or how many new customers you will need to earn that money back so you can start seeing a profit for your hard work.

Air Travel Tips

You should consider using a travel agent when you plan for the air travel. The agents do not charge a fee because they get their commission from the airline company. They can give you information about cheap flights and discount flights. One important tip which you should know after you buy the air ticket is that you should remember to call your travel agent or airline company at least an hour before your departure to confirm your reservation and to check the fare. Air fares have a tendency to fluctuate and if the fare for your airline ticket that you bought goes down before you fly, then some airlines have the policy to reimburse you the difference. There are conditions like purchasing a round-trip ticket, purchasing a ticket within 24 hours of making a reservation that are associated with getting a discounted fare. It is however important to note that most discount travel is non-refundable though you can always check for the contradictory from the airline company.


If you are a frequent flier, you can accumulate points using the Airline credit card of your favorite airline company. The tie up between the credit card issuer and the airline company ensures that you continue with the patronage to the airline company so that you can redeem fantastic discounts with the airline company.

Credit cards companies have also extended the rewards beyond travel destinations and air tickets. They gave the customer an opportunity to redeem points accumulated, for free hotel reservations and car rentals besides air tickets.

Here are some pointers for a successful air travel trip:

Ensure you have cash, identification cards, credit cards, itinerary and air tickets before you leave home. Please do not forget your passport if you are traveling abroad.

Carry your medicines with you. Also do not forget important documents and valuable business papers with you.  They have to be with you all the time so that you do not have to hunt for them.

If you have an important meeting lined up, you should always aspire to reach the destination, the night before. This way, you will be able to stay in your hotel, have a good dinner and even rest after the jet lag. You may be able to deliver the presentation with confidence rather than pushing everything up.

Use the in-flight phone to inform the concerned person in case there is a delay in the flight.

If you require hotel rooms with Internet connection, make sure that you find the service charges involved. Most hotels have suites that have computers, laptop connection, printers etc that can be quite helpful for people on business travel. However as said before, you have to be careful about the charges. Do not use the hotel phone except in emergency, because they may be charged high. Make use of the public phones in the lobby or use your good old mobile phone for routine calls.

Once you arrive, arrange for a pre-arrange car service to pick you up. Airports have various facilities to opt from for pick ups after you pass through the baggage claim area. Hiring a taxi works out cheaper than renting a car or van especially if you are carrying luggage.

Flying is quite like the movies-glamorous only on the outside. In fact it is quite energy sapping and time consuming.  You should learn to be tolerant and patient when you travel by air. Use the best of air travel tips mentioned above and when it is all said and done, you will be ensured an enjoyable and safe journey.


Top Adventure Vacation Package Destinations

Travel with a bang – that is perhaps the best definition of an adventure vacation.  To the personal experience, an adventure vacation is an exercise of going out on one’s own surroundings and actively seeking unfamiliar experiences.  While exotic may be an overused term, finding uniqueness in every trip that will bring out a different feeling from you is what adventure vacation tries to accomplish.  Instead of using the rare holidays to sit down in your house, or take a stale ride to the beach, adventure travel aims to introduce different dimensions of the world’s different offerings and expose you to new situations.

Adventure vacations serve the demand of an ever-changing tourist base.  Thus, new and promising tourist spots cater to adventure travelers more than the casual tourists.  As competition for adventure vacation packages heats up, tourists will be happy to find budget packages online that suits perfectly well for the experience that they are looking for.

Cultural Adventure Vacation Packages

One aspect of adventure travel that is underrated is the opportunity to know people from different cultures and environments.  From a first-world perspective, there is a lot on the market for cultural travel to Asia and South America.  As an example, the Philippines led by local tourism agencies are highlighting various cultural events as part of travel itineraries.  Adventure vacation packages that view Filipino festivals like the Ati-Atihan and Panagbenga Flower Festival attract a lot of foreign tourist who want to learn the culture of the islands.  The same adventure vacation packages are also available in Vietnam where you can take a hike through the mountains and tour a spectrum of people and study the culture that unites the country.

Adventure vacation in India is also a popular draw for many tourists.  Popular vacation packages include a trip to the various temples, religious festivals, and markets of India.  Starting with the famous Taj Mahal, you can learn more about their culture with a firsthand view.  Other popular cultural adventure destinations include Peru, Mexico, China, Nepal, Tibet, and the South Pacific.

Nature Adventure Traveling

Mother Nature imposes a lot of challenges for avid adventure travelers.  However, when the appetite for adventure and travel knocks, no one will stop you from finding nature adventure destinations everywhere.  The Alaskan adventure vacation package features canoeing from the Yukon territories to towns in Alaska, hiking, kayaking, picnics, sailing, and bird watching.  Crossing the Atlantic, you can take a series of trains and travel all over Europe to explore its natural beauty.  Since it is easy to cross European borders, you can have itineraries as creative as a sunset cruise in the French Riviera on the first day, then a hike in the Czech highlands after three days.  Before your European nature adventure ends, you will most likely see the best of serene Europe from the Scandinavian, Danube, and Iberian Peninsula, to Morocco, and the Mediterranean islands.

Choosing an Adventure Vacation Package

Taking the step from the casual, mainstream traveler to a true adventure traveler requires a lot of openness, imagination, free time, and organization.  More importantly, you must have your itinerary planned within your budget.  You can also be the extreme adventure traveler who decides on choice destination spontaneously.  Nevertheless it is important to prioritize your wish list of destinations so that you can make every trip memorable.  A carefully planned travel itinerary along with a definite adventure vacation package helps bring structure to an otherwise fleeting trip.

If you want to find the best of the best adventure destinations in the world, it is important that you research for yourself so you can have an idea what kind of trip you really want to engage in.  Do you want an extreme wilderness vacation package or an island hopping itinerary?  Do you prefer land explorations over diving and snorkeling?  Alternatively, do you prefer both?  With so many choices, defining what you want can go a long way in organizing your travel plans.


Air Travel Tips

Low-cost airlines are the best things which could have happened to the world of air travel. Unlike conventional airlines that employ travel agents and require you to buy tickets in person, the low-cost airline makes everything available through the convenience of a website. Taking a cue about online ticket selling from these low-cost airlines, traditional airline companies are latching on to the cost-effective idea of selling and marketing flights online.

All you have to do is go to a website, select the destination airport and departing airport and select dates you wish to travel. Soon you are quoted prices for all flights on that day. If you are flexible about the travel date and do not mind traveling on some other dates, the airline company quotes prices for alternative days which can be cheaper than the rates for a particular date.

Most low-cost airlines quote various hotel prices while you buy your tickets online and provide information about how much it may cost you to stay in the city you are visiting. You can even book for car rentals online. Arrangements can be made to pick you up and drop you off at the airport. You also have the facility to make hotel reservations, go through some exciting vacation packages, and check out the lodging, resorts and other destination information. Make it a point to check some online travel guides and guidebooks to equip your knowledge about the country you will be visiting. You should also make the best use of travel insurance for your flight so that it provides coverage for your trip. Since your profile and traveling needs are already fed into the system, you can be assured of customized service and offers tailored to match your needs.

When you plan an air travel tip you should always be on the lookout to discover how you can save money on air travel. If you are on a business trip, your airfare will be on the company expense but for a personal travel, you should make the best arrangement to suit your needs without burdening your wallet. You should be flexible in your travel plans to get the lowest or cheap airfare. The best deals may be limited to certain days of the week like Tuesday through Thursday or Friday nights through Sunday mornings. Even certain times of the day like late-night departures offer the best deal.

Always make it a point to plan much ahead of your journey. Airlines set aside only a few seats which come with low advertised rates. It goes without saying that cheap airfare and huge discount deals are quick sellouts. However, you may be able to get seats at discounted rates for a particular flight, if it is not selling as well as expected. The airplane companies will sell such tickets at discount airfare just before the advance purchase deadline gets over. One should also note that many airlines briefly offer air flight tickets for sale during certain periods of the year. The time when people are less likely to travel like the beginning of the autumn season or the time just after the New Year Holiday season is the time when you are bound to get cheap airplane tickets.